ABS and PLA filaments are widely known in the 3D printing universe, but there are important advantages of PETG filament... read more
3D printing is versatile in itself but materials can be printed in different ways that result in diverse finishes that aren’t dependent on post-processing techniques. Polylactic acid (PLA) is without a doubt the most popular 3D printing filament, but it also receptive to different surface finishes produced by varying extruder temperatures.
When printing our PLA at the lower end of the recommended temperature range it will produce more of a matte finish like the print on the left side of the photo (printed at 205 °C). PLA printed at a high temperature at the top and above the recommended range will have a shiny glossy surface finish like the print on the right side of the photo (printed at 250 °C).
By varying the temperature of your printer you can obtain different finishes with the same material without post-processing.
3D printing has become more affordable. Its adoption has become more prevalent in the lower cost consumer segment thanks to light to mid-grade printers. What can this mean for the industry? Here at MakeShaper, we are seeing these lower cost machines produce more consistent, higher quality prints that are able to rival the more expensive counterparts. We feel the big movement in the fused deposition modeling (FDM) segment of 3D printing will be in the materials sector, coupled with growing strategic partnerships.
The fit, form and finish of prints from FDM printers have a lot to do with the characteristics of the materials being used. As a manufacturer of materials, we have to develop ways to enable FDM machines to produce better prints. It’s similar to when a new computer is released with new hardware specifications; software companies have to design to what will work with the computer. A few years ago, the two main options for FDM printing were ABS and PLA, but now we see hybrid, unique materials, some with higher diameters, that have enabled users to produce a higher quality of print, with less finishing all at a lower cost. As the industry pushes forward, material manufacturers will continue to expand their offerings, continually advancing the quality of prints on lower cost printers.
Collaboration will be key in these advances. True material manufacturers will emerge to meet the needs of the industry. Recently, MakeShaper partnered with Diabase Engineering to design and manufacture an ultra-flexible shore 60a material to complement their line of Flexion Extruders. This has enabled users to print things that until now were just not possible with lower-cost FDM machines. We have also worked with 3D Platform to accommodate their new line of high flow extruders. Our manufacturing capabilities allowed us to extrude a 6mm diameter filament that permits the machine to print sixteen times faster, in excess of 237mm3/s using their HFE900 extruder. This new option allows a much faster print, at a reduced cost by decreasing the machine time.
3D printing is still in its genesis and it is exciting to think of what the future can bring. One thing is for certain, more materials will be made available for low-cost printers, allowing for more polished, professional quality prints to be made from wherever the need exists… be at home, office, or a small business. Production ready prints will no longer just be available to the larger manufacturers who can afford an expensive 3D printer. Material manufacturers like us will continue to collaborate more with machine manufacturers and listen to the needs of the market to help bring continued innovation to the industry.
North Carolina knows rapid prototyping and 3D printing. N.C. State University, Duke University, UNC Chapel Hill and the Research Triangle Park anchor the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area, making the region a hotbed of rapid prototyping on the East Coast. The Tar Heel State also has (as of February 2017) more than 326 3D Hubs within its borders and 3D-printing work labs spread throughout the campuses of its post-secondary schools. To get to know 3D printing in North Carolina, start with the innovators and look to the area’s large amount of colleges and universities.
Chapel Hill’s altruistic star shined bright in 2014, when UNC biomedical engineering major Jeff Phillips created a prosthetic hand for a local 7-year-old born using a 3D printer and 3D printer filament from UNC’s biomedical engineering lab. At a cost of about $20 for the filaments, the prosthetic allowed the child to grasp objects for the first time, and contributed to advancement in the field of prosthetics.
Aly Khalifa, TEDxer and cofounder of Raleigh-based Designbox, approached leather shoes’ resistance to biodegradability by starting LYF shoes, which makes modular footwear without adhesives. LYF shoes not only break down easier than leather shoes, you can repair them or print new uppers and soles, which consist of an insole, performance plate, heel lock and sole, using a 3D printer.
Author and entrepreneur Ping Fu and 3D printing go way back — all the way to 1997 when she co-founded 3D software firm, Geomagic — and she hasn’t stopped since, now serving as 3D Systems‘ Chief Strategy Officer in the Research Triangle Park. 3D Systems produces the Figure 4 printer, which prints 50 times faster than conventional SLA 3D printing systems and puts out about four billion drops of 3D printing filament per minute.
3D Printing at N.C. State: Hunt and D.H. Hill
N.C. State’s J.B. Hunt Jr. Library features a Makerspace workstation that offers a 3D scanner and three 3D printers — a Fusion F306, a Formlabs Form1+ and a Stratasys uPrint SE Plus — for faculty, staff and student use. Hunt charges $10 per cubic inch of ABSplus, 35 cents per gram of PLA filament and 60 cents per milliliter of photopolymer resin.
Duke University offers the U.S. education system’s largest 3D printing facility, with a 24-7 lab that features 56 3D printers. In addition to commodity printers, Duke researchers work with state-of-the-art equipment and technology, such as PolyJet, laser sintering printers and the Carbon 3D SL process.
Wake Forest University
Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem leads the nation in the bioengineering application of 3D printing technology. Research scientists and students at Wake Forest School of Medicine, for example, made 3D printing of human tissue reality by crafting body parts and organs using live cells sourced from patients. Led by Dr. Anthony Atala, the team makes ears by printing a scaffold of the ear and grafting cells onto it, and makes solid organs, such as bladders, by printing the organ’s structure using polymers and living cells and creating channels that deliver nutrients and allow capillaries to form.
Wake Tech Community College
Wake Tech Community College in Raleigh has a robust 3D printing program that includes courses for enrolled students and Model 3D sessions open to both students and the general public at the main and northern campuses. Wake offers six courses that incorporate 3D printing in their syllabi and a stand-alone specialized certification course in 3D printing. Wake Tech also offers a 3D Hub for fabricating designs.
Central Carolina Community College
Central Carolina Community College (CCCC), with campuses in Chatham, Harnett and Lee counties, offers Associate degrees, vocational certifications and diploma programs in computer-aided drafting technology that rely heavily on 3D printing and CADD modeling and design software, including Inventor, SolidWorks, MasterCam and AutoCAD.
Randolph Community College
Randolph Community College in Asheboro provides two-year degrees in interior design that require on-campus training in 3D modeling and printing with the design lab’s Mcor Matrix 300+ industrial printer. The curriculum includes training in SketchUp, Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator and InDesign.
Primary and Secondary Schools
North Carolina boasts a number of private primary and secondary schools, such as Ravenscroft Prep School in Raleigh, Peak Charter Academy in Apex and Cary Academy in Cary, that make 3D printing technologies part of the curricula starting as early as ninth grade. Cary Academy, for example, includes study in architectural design, designing and fabricating scale models of structures, such as the school’s campus.
Where to Buy 3D Printer Filament
Check out MakeShaper next time you’re in the market for high-quality 3D printer filament. Based in Sanford, MakeShaper is North Carolina’s largest 3D printer filament maker. More than a manufacturer, MakeShaper is made of individuals active in the rapid prototyping scene on both personal and professional levels.
Printing with flexible filament can be a delicate balancing act. To achieve great results, your printer needs to be a finely tuned machine along with using a good high quality filament and perfecting the settings in your slicing software. Here are five things to consider when printing flexible material. Remember, changing any of these can drastically change the print.
1. Print Speed
|Due to the nature of flexible TPU filament and the potential to kink or buckle when being pushed through the hot end, it is highly recommended that you hit the brakes on your print speeds and slow them w-a-y down. Typical print speeds for non-flexible filaments can range from 30mm/second all the way up to 90mm/second. For flexible, slower is better so we recommended starting around 30mm-40mm/second and see what works best in your particular printer.|
2. Proper Extruder Setup
|A direct drive extruder will work best when trying to print flexible TPU. However, you can print flexible on a Bowden-type extruder but with some increased difficulty. We are currently working on flexible extruder adapters that will allow you to print TPU easier on a printer with a Bowden-type extruder. If your printer is not equipped with a Bowden tube, then adding one to help guide the filament can give you a better chance of avoiding filament buckling.|
3. Print Temperature
|Flexible TPU is especially sensitive when it comes to the temperature of your hot end. We recommend that with our material you start at 220°-245°C and fine-tune your settings for the best results. This will reduce the oozing material from the print head that can create messy or stringy prints.|
|Your retraction settings will also play a big part in getting good results and avoiding stringy prints. Retraction is when the extruder motor moves in reverse ever so slightly to avoid extrusion when moving across a gap in a printed design. Too little retraction and you will be left with cobwebs of material all over your print. Too much retraction will leave you with blobs of filament when the print head starts its next segment of printing.|
5. Bed Adhesion
|Proper bed adhesion is key to any successful print but with flexible TPU, it is even more crucial. We recommend that you only try printing flexible on a printer with a heated bed with the temperature range set between 45°-60°C. Check out our article on bed preparation for more information.|
ABS and PLA filaments are widely known in the 3D printing universe, but there are important advantages of PETG filament in 3D printing that are causing it to quickly growing as a popular option for builds. The properties of PETG make it an appropriate choice for producing a vast array of impact-resistant and flexible items.
PETG is a modified form of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a thermoplastic widely used in plastic bottles. In fact, 43 percent of U.S. soft drinks are delivered in PET bottles.
Glycol-modified PET (PETG) is an increasingly popular filament material because it’s more durable than common alternatives. The addition of glycol prevents crystallization so it won’t become brittle when heated. PETG is a highly transparent co-polyester that can be dyed as required. It is possible to produce brightly colored, translucent prints with a nice, glossy finish with minimal post-processing.
As the 3D printing industry matured, PETG emerged as a viable and attractive alternative to ABS and PLA. Here are some of the qualities that drive interest in this advanced filament material:
- Excellent layer adhesion
- Warp resistance
- Reduced shrinkage
- Higher density
- Chemical resistance to both acidic and alkali compounds
- Flexible printing on glass, acrylic, glass, blue tape and polyimide tape
- Odorlessness during printing
Finished prints are pliable and more impact-resistant. In fact, PETG is flexible enough that it is virtually unbreakable in the layer direction. Excellent layer adhesion translates into improved surface finishes. Low shrinkage means it is often a good choice for printing larger items.
PETG is worth considering any time your 3D print needs to be tough, durable, flexible and impact-resistant. It is ideal for use in the production of a wide array of mechanical parts. The rapidly expanding robotics technology sector is also embracing PETG printing. The smooth finish of PETG prints, and the fact that the plastic is FDA-compliant makes it an appropriate choice for printing creative and/or intricate kitchenware designs. You are really only limited by your imagination.
Enterprises looking for a filament that will produce translucent, shatter-resistant items like phone cases will also want to take a close look at using PETG filament.
PETG filament favorably compares to other popular 3D printing materials:
- PLA/PHA filament — Polylactic (PLA) is a biopolymer commonly derived from cornstarch and sugarcane. PETG print speeds are similar to those of PLA, although the melting point is higher. Like, PETG, PLA and PHA filaments are relatively easy to use. However, PETG is denser (1.38g/cm3).
- ABS filament — Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Styrene (ABS) is temperature-resistant like PETG. While ABS is harder, PETG is more flexible and more durable. PETG is odorless during printing, while ABS emits a noticeable odor.
- TPU filament — Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) is not as dense as PETG; the density of flexible TPU filament is just 1.21g/cm3. The chemical resistance of TPU is good, while the chemical resistance of PETG is excellent.
Once you do the math, you’ll see that PETG can be a high-quality, cost-effective alternative to these other filaments.
One of PETG’s virtues is that it is recyclable. It is different from many other plastics because its polymer chains are readily recovered for future use. PETG can be recycled for use as a gas barrier. Its chemical resistance makes it a good barrier when used with solvents and alcohol. Be sure to always check with your local recycler for their rules and regulations on what you can bring and what they can recycle.
We here at MakeShaper are excited to launch our line of PETG filaments. Available in two diameters and a dozen colors, our filaments provide superb extrusion every time, in every project.
We also offer a wide range of made-in-the-USA filaments in a spectrum of deep, saturated colors and full range of diameters and spool sizes. Crafted in Sanford, North Carolina, from high-purity raw materials, MakeShaper makes high quality performance filament so you can make anything!
Natural PETG Filament – 6 mm$400.00
UV Reactive Green PETG Filament – 1.75 mm$63.00
Translucent Red PETG Filament – 2.85 mm$24.00
Translucent Blue PETG Filament – 2.85 mm$24.00
Translucent Yellow PETG Filament – 2.85 mm$24.00
Translucent Red PETG Filament – 1.75 mm$24.00
Translucent Blue PETG Filament – 1.75 mm$24.00
Translucent Yellow PETG Filament – 1.75 mm$24.00
Translucent Purple PETG Filament – 2.85 mm$24.00
Yellow PETG Filament – 2.85 mm$24.00
White PETG Filament – 2.85 mm$24.00 – $120.00
Red PETG Filament – 2.85 mm$24.00 – $120.00
Bed adhesion or 3D printer bed prep is one of many factors to consider when it comes to producing successful 3D prints. The first few layers are usually the most crucial as it can set the tone for the rest of the print. MakeShaper has a few suggestions on how to prep your bed prior to printing, but before we dive deeper – the first thing to consider is the orientation of the print itself when printed. Using supports may be a headache to remove, but a large footprint on the print bed could make even the first few layers susceptible to warping or other problems on certain materials.
MakeShaper usually recommends using glue on printers with a heated bed, depending on the filament material. To apply the glue, first start when the bed is cool to avoid the glue melting. A rule of thumb is you want to apply the patch of glue slightly bigger than the base of the printed part. We recommend using a water-based (PVA) standard glue stick. Our office favorite is the classic standard of Elmer’s water-based glue. Since not all materials have the same print characteristics, we recommend different methods for applying glue for different materials.
When printing with ABS, you should use two thin layers of glue. The first layer should be applied in the same direction and not overlap. The second layer should be applied over the first layer perpendicular to the direction of the first layer (think crosshatching or a lattice). This will help reduce the chances of warping when printing with ABS.
When printing with PLA, only use one thin layer of glue. Like preparing the bed for ABS, start by applying glue to a cool bed in the same direction and try to minimize overlap. PLA tends to not warp like ABS so it only needs one layer of glue for good bed adhesion.
When printing with PETG and TPU filament, we do not recommend that you use any kind of additional bed preparation such as glue for layer adhesion.
There are many factors when producing high-quality 3D prints. What we recommend may not work for every printer in every environment. Take our recommendations as a baseline and play around to figure out what will work best for your printer, material, design and environment.
MakeShaper is updating the way we label the diameter on our filament. Our 3.0 mm filament will now be labeled 2.85 mm. We’ve always manufactured our 3.0mm filament to a 2.85 mm specification, it’s just a change in the way we will label and refer to the product.
So… why did we call it 3 mm if it was 2.85 and why change it now?
Well, there are a lot of 3.0mm printers out there. That designation comes down to the size of their extruders and filament feeding tubes, which are exactly 3.0 mm (or the inner diameter is close to 3.0 mm). When using filament that is exactly 3.0 mm in a 3.0 mm printhead, expect some serious clogging issues, especially with a Bowden type extruder.
In the industry, most filaments labeled 3.0 mm are actually just slightly less in diameter to prevent this issue. We are extremely proud of our tight tolerances and are now updating our labels to match the true diameter of 2.85 mm. There are no changes to the actual filament.
A while back we were contacted by Mike Learned (who runs a successful YouTube channel called NeoPortnoy 3D Printing) to do a review of our PLA filament for us. We sent him a sampling of our products and through a bit of back and forth conversation, we got his printer optimized and printing our filament with successful results. Check out his video for more information on his thoughts and opinions of our products.
CarbonX™ Carbon Fiber PLA Filament – 1.75mm$68.00
CarbonX™ Carbon Fiber PLA Filament – 2.85mm$68.00
Robbin’s Egg Blue PLA Filament -1.75 mm$21.00
Natural PLA Filament – 6 mm$360.00
Gray PLA Filament – 6 mm$360.00
Blue PLA Filament – 6 mm$360.00
Greige PLA Filament -1.75 mm$21.00 – $105.00
Translucent Blue PLA Filament -1.75 mm$21.00 – $105.00
Khaki PLA Filament -1.75 mm$21.00 – $105.00
Translucent Red PLA Filament -1.75 mm$21.00 – $105.00
Translucent Yellow PLA Filament -1.75 mm$21.00 – $105.00
Translucent Orange PLA Filament -1.75 mm$21.00 – $105.00